The moisture between soil particles is referred to as soil moisture. Unlike root zone soil moisture, which is commonly believed to be in the upper 200 cm of soil, surface soil moisture refers to the water in the top 10 cm of soil. The amount of soil moisture is negligible compared to other components of the hydrologic cycle, but it is essential to several hydrological, biological, and biogeochemical processes. Several government agencies and private companies with an interest in weather and climate, runoff potential and flood control, soil erosion and slope failure, reservoir management, geotechnical engineering, and water quality can benefit from soil moisture data. Soil moisture is essential for regulating the passage of water and heat energy between the land surface and the atmosphere via evaporation and plant transpiration. Thus, soil moisture is essential for the development of weather patterns and the precipitation cycle.
Simulations of numerical weather prediction models have indicated that a better definition of surface soil moisture, vegetation, and temperature can lead to considerable improvements in forecasts. The amount of precipitation that drains into nearby streams and rivers is also significantly affected by the soil’s moisture content. Soil moisture data can be exploited for crop yield forecasting, irrigation scheduling, early drought warning, and reservoir management.